IMPACT-SE’s Reports

IMPACT-se researches school textbooks, teachers’ guides, and curricula to assess whether young people are being educated to accept Others—be it their neighbors, minorities and even their nation’s enemies, and to solve conflicts through negotiation and compromise while rejecting hatred and violence.

Hot Research Topics

  • Updated Review of Saudi Textbooks 2022–23

    Image of king Salman and his son MBS next to their quotesThis IMPACT-se report examines the textbooks of the 2023-24 academic school year to identify curricular changes. It pays particular attention to content highlighted in IMPACT-se’s study of the Saudi curriculum from previous years. The analysis includes a comprehensive review of 371 textbooks from the Saudi Arabian national curriculum, published between 2019 and 2024. This allows for an evaluation of both the latest curriculum developments and the evolution of educational content over the past five years. The study focuses on subjects of the Humanities, namely Arabic language, Islamic and Social Studies, Life and Family Skills, Critical Thinking, Geography, History, and Literature. The contents of the textbooks are analyzed according to UNESCO-based standards of peace and tolerance.

    Negative portrayals of infidels and polytheists have been toned down and decreased in number, as well as the depictions of various practices of Shi’a and Sufism to be heretical. In continuing with trends highlighted in previous IMPACT-se reports, all problematic examples promoting jihad and martyrdom have been removed or altered. Considerable improvements in regards to gender have been made, though textbooks maintain a traditional approach to gender roles in society and at home. Significant amounts of homophobic content have been removed. However, cross-dressing is still prohibited. The curriculum reveals Saudi Arabia’s dedication to the Palestinian cause. Portrayals of Israel and Zionism have progressed further. Students no longer learn content which defined Zionism as a “racist” European movement that aims to expel Palestinians, or that Zionism’s “fundamental goal” is to expand its borders and take over Arab lands, oil wells and Islamic and Christian holy sites in Jerusalem. Nonetheless, Israel is still not recognized on maps, but in some instances the name ‘Palestine’ which featured across the entirety of Israeli territory, has been systematically removed. The Holocaust is absent from the curriculum, and Israel is still referred to as “the Israeli occupation” or “Israeli occupiers” in the context of the 1948 War. Several problematic examples still appear in some textbooks. Report

  • The Portrayal of Jews and Israel in Muslim and Arab Textbooks: Major Trends

    This special publication, produced in collaboration with INSS by IMPACT-se Head of Research Eldad Pardo and Research Associate Dr. Yonatan Negev, explores the portrayal of Jews and Israel in textbooks from Muslim and Arab countries across the Middle East, North Africa, Azerbaijan, and Indonesia. The depiction of Jews varies from negative stereotypes influenced by traditional and modern antisemitism, to occasional positive references acknowledging the respect given to the “Israelites” by the Prophet Muhammad. Israel is mostly portrayed negatively, especially in relation to the Palestinian conflict. Meanwhile, there is little mention of the Holocaust or the history of indigenous Jews in the region. While textbooks might be free from anti-Jewish content but still contain anti-Israel material, the reverse is not seen. The study also finds that countries which deviate from promoting a moderate and inclusive educational vision tend to include more delegitimizing rhetoric against Jews and Israel. Conversely, those striving for curricula that emphasize peace and tolerance often reduce radical discourse against Jews and Israel. Report


    Screenshot of image inside Iraqi textbook. School-aged girls admiring the Iraqi flag

    This IMPACT-se report offers a comprehensive insight into 71 textbooks from the Republic of Iraq’s national school curriculum, dated 2015-2022, for grades 1-12. The study focuses on humanities subjects, particularly history, Arabic language, Islamic Education, and social studies. Our findings showed that textbooks continue the largely conservative ideas which originate from Saddam Hussein’s rule (1979-2003) and earlier, only partially reflecting modern-day developments in Iraq since the 2003 war.

    The research explores attitudes toward Iraq’s diversity of ethnic and religious groups, and the framing of historical events pre- and post- the toppling of the 1958 Iraqi monarchy. The study addresses the complex depictions of violent jihad and martyrdom, terrorism, and gender roles. The curriculum presents a muted approach to regional and global issues, with notable exceptions including negative descriptions of the United States in a historical context. The portrayal of Jews, Judaism and Israel occupies a central focus, and reflects a deep animosity towards these topics. Report

  • Arabs and Palestinians in Israeli Textbooks 2022‒23

    This IMPACT-se report offers an insight into major themes relating to Arabs and Palestinians in government-approved, Hebrew-language Israeli school textbooks covering civics, geography, Hebrew studies, history, homeland, society and civics, Israel studies, Jewish thought, and Jewish-Israeli culture. The research explores how specific lessons, images and exercises portray and shape attitudes toward Palestinians and Arabs from various backgrounds within Israeli society and the greater region. It evaluates the presentation of the Arab-Israeli and Israeli-Palestinian conflicts, the peace process, and Arab and Palestinian Other—living either as citizens of Israel, in Jerusalem, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and elsewhere. This analysis looks at 107 textbooks taught at state and state-religious schools approved by the Israeli Ministry of Education for the 2022–23 academic year. These include the entire corpus of the eight state-approved civics textbooks (from which schools could choose), as well as the majority of history textbooks dealing with the periods of the Arab-Israeli conflict. In doing so, this report focuses on six thematic categories: “Peace Education”, “The Palestinian Experience”, ”Diversity and Democratic Values”, “Self-Reflection, Violence and Injustice”, “Har Bracha: Perspective from the West Bank,” and “Cartography.”  Report

  • A Look at Gender Representation and LGBT-Inclusive Education in Israeli Textbooks

    Image: Pride flag waving in the sun

    This brief on LGBT education in Israel examines two of the nine areas IMPACT-se reviews during textbook analysis – ‘Gender Identity and Representation,’ and ‘Sexual Orientation.’ The teaching of LGBT materials is afforded lesser importance in the curriculum: such content is generally not included in textbooks, and is instead provided as online supplementary materials. Nonetheless, education on LGBT identity is provided in the Ministry of Education-approved, mandatory “Life Skills” Program, which advocates for acceptance, tolerance, empathy, and responsibility toward the Other. This is available on the Ministry of Education website, is mandatory, and has been prepared in collaboration with an LGBTQ non-profit organization. The LGBT community is also referenced in one Ministry of Education Civics textbook, Being Citizens in Israel, in the context of the Pride Parade, and in an explanation of prohibited discrimination.  Report

  • Israel and Jews in Egyptian Textbooks - A Forward-Looking Perspective

    Image of textbooks on tableThis report is co-authored by Dr Eldad Pardo, IMPACT-se Director of Research and Dr. Ofir Winter, Senior Researcher at the Institute for National Security Studies. The report provides a comprehensive study on school curricula in Egypt in light of recent regional developments, including the Hamas attack on Israel on 7 October. In the knowledge that textbooks can serve as a useful and instructive tool for researchers seeking to understand the vision of a country’s leadership in the medium and long term, this report uses the lens of Egyptian education as an indicator of future trends, in particular towards Israel-Egypt relations. Report

  • Between Conservatism and Reforms: The Dual Nature of Al-Azhar’s School Curriculum

    BETWEEN CONSERVATISM AND REFORMS: THE DUAL NATURE OF AL-AZHAR'S SCHOOL CURRICULUM - NOV 2023 - FRONT COVERThis report offers a first-of-its kind insight into the curriculum taught at the influential Al-Azhar religious seminary in Egypt. The institute operates a separate K-12 school system that publishes its own textbooks and teaches them alongside those of the Egyptian national curriculum, which IMPACT-se researched in April. The study evaluated 63 textbooks across grades 7–12, spanning many genres of classical Islamic literature: Qur’an commentary, hadith, jurisprudence, Islamic history and culture, grammar, and rhetoric.

    Our findings reveal a strong emphasis on combating radical Islam, while still promoting adherence to traditional Islamic beliefs and texts. The report promotes a moderate form of Islam which rejects extremism, and demonizes Islamist terror groups. The attitude toward Jews is largely ambivalent, whereas Christians are portrayed in a positive light. Lessons on gender equality reveal conservative views. When addressed, international issues reflect an anti-Western perspective. Israel and Zionism are approached from a hostile standpoint. The report focuses on seven thematic categories: combating radical Islam; fighting disbelief; gender issues; treatment of Jews and Christians; Zionism and Israel; Islamic sects; and international relations.   Report

  • UNRWA Education: Textbooks and Terror—November 2023

    With this damning report, documenting support for the October 7 Massacre among UNRWA teachers and other staff UNRWA EDUCATION—TEXTBOOKS AND TERROR NOV 2023--Image of front covermembers, IMPACT-se uncovers evidence of the connection between the content of textbooks taught in UNRWA schools and the atrocities committed on October 7, reflecting years of hate-teaching in these schools. The report shows that to date, at least fourteen teachers and staff at UNRWA schools have publicly celebrated the October 7 massacre and other Hamas attacks on their social media accounts. One UNRWA teacher in the school system in Gaza, Sarah Alderawy, posted a video clip on the day of the massacre showing Hamas terrorists roaming the Israeli streets with rifles while shooting at Israeli cars and rocket attacks in Israel. Over half of Gazan school students attend UNRWA schools. The report further reveals that at least 100 Hamas members committing the terror attacks are graduates of UNRWA’s education system, whose textbooks include content that encourages antisemitism, glorifies violence and promotes militant jihadEnglish French

  • Updated Review of Saudi Textbooks 2022–23

    Image: Mosque on the outskirts of Medina, Saudi Arabia

    IMPACT-se’s latest review of the Saudi national curriculum evaluates textbooks currently taught in the 2022–23 school year, and looks at any changes made compared to previous editions. The report examined the entire humanities corpus over the last five years, totaling 301 textbooks, and including 80 textbooks for the current 2022–23 school year. Our findings reveal an overall trend of improvement and reform, building on the gradual removal of problematic content in Saudi textbooks since IMPACT-se’s 2020 report. A significant number of examples teaching harmful material on Jews and Christians, violent jihad, gender, and homosexuality have been removed, and negative portrayals of infidels have been moderated. The depiction of Israel and Zionism also shows some progress despite the existence of negative material, with an entire chapter containing harmful material on Israel removed. Textbooks criticize the ideologies of terror groups, and other concepts which as perceived as challenging the Saudi government. The importance of peace, tolerance, and respect for the Other are emphasized, reflecting a move toward moderation, openness, and peaceful development.   Report

  • Generational Change: Egypt’s Quest to Reform its School Curriculum

    Image: Kids in Egyptian School reading in front of a black board

    IMPACT-se has released its most comprehensive report to date on the Egyptian national school curriculum, which evaluated 271 textbooks published between 2018 and 2023. The study focuses on Arabic language, Islamic and Christian religious
    education, social studies, Values and Respect for the Other, history, geography, philosophy, and more.

    The research comes amid an ongoing year-by-year reform of the Egyptian national curriculum between 2018 and 2030 across all grades (as yet up to grade 5), and found that the reformed curriculum shows highly positive change thus far. The report explores attitudes toward peace and tolerance, the Jewish and Christian Other, and both contemporary and past foreign policy. It evaluates the perception of domestic issues like population density; the revolutions of January 2011 and June 2013; the depiction of Israel; and the role of gender in Egyptian society. The report focuses on seven thematic categories: “Curricular Reform,” “General Perceptions of War and Peace,” “Society and Politics following a Decade of Upheaval,” “Treatment of the ‘Other’,” “Domestic Challenges,” “Status of Women,” and “Regional and International Outlook.”  Report

  • UNRWA Education: Reform or Regression

    UNRWA IMPACT-se—UN Watch Site Image

    A joint IMPACT-se/United Nations Watch report, concerning incitement to hate and violence by UNRWA teachers andschools,is being presented on Tuesday, March 14 to Congress. The report uncovers 47 new cases of incitement by UNRWA staff, in breach of the agency’s stated policies of zero tolerance for racism, discrimination, or antisemitism in its schools and educational materials. Teachers and schools at the UN agency that runs education and social services for Palestinians regularly call for the murder of Jews, and create teaching materials that glorify terrorism, encourage martyrdom, demonize Israelis, and incite antisemitism. The report captures evidence taken from inside UNRWA classrooms, showing the teaching of these materials, and revealing how UNRWA’s own content directs students to study specific hateful passages in Palestinian textbooks—which the organization claims teachers are told to skip. The findings also contradict statements and promises made very recently by UNRWA to donor nations and were also submitted to U.S. Ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas-Greenfield; EU Commissioner Joseph Borell; German Chancellor, Olaf Scholz; UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres; and UNRWA chief Philippe Lazzarini.  UNRWA 2023 Joint Report

  • The Moroccan Curriculum: Education in the Service of Tolerance

    This IMPACT-se report offers a first-of-its-kind insight into 127 textbooks from the Kingdom of Morocco’s national school curriculum, published between 2013 and 2022. The study focuses on humanities subjects, particularly social studies, geography, history, Islamic studies, Arabic language and literature, French, and English. Our research found that the Moroccan curriculum largely adheres to UNESCO standards of peace and tolerance: textbooks promote the centrality of peace and tolerance to Moroccan identity, society and foreign policy, alongside democracy, human and civil rights. While the monarchy is praised, students are encouraged to engage in critical self-reflection in relation to Moroccan history. The curriculum places an emphasis on women’s issues, as well as the history and traditions of the indigenous Amazigh population. Morocco’s Jewish community is frequently and warmly represented, with lessons discussing the Jewish religion, culture, day-to-day life, and contribution to Moroccan society. Textbooks discuss European colonialism and contemporary foreign policy, as well as Morocco’s territorial integrity. The report focuses on six thematic categories: “Constitutional Monarchy,” “Peace and Tolerance,” “Foreign Policy,” “Gender,” “Amazigh Representation,” and “Jews and Judaism in Morocco.”   Report


    This IMPACT-se report offers a first-of-its-kind insight into the Indonesian curriculum for grades 1–12. This covers textbooks on religion, civics, history, social studies, environmental studies, globalization, and geography. The research explores how specific lessons, images and exercises portray and shape attitudes toward international relations, officially recognized and non-recognized religions, gender equality, local languages and cultures, and ethnic minorities. It evaluates the ways in which the state philosophy of Pancasila promotes national values of unity within diversity; religious and social harmony; humility; the importance of local wisdom; and respect toward other nations. This analysis looks at 169 textbooks taught in the Standard Public Track, schools run by the Indonesian Ministry of Education, which make up 85 percent of all students.  The report focuses on five thematic categories: “Pancasila: One God, Unity-in-Diversity,” “Religious Communities in Indonesia,” “Minorities and the ‘Other’,” “International Relations,” and “Local and Ethnic Wisdom.” Report.

  • Arab Education in Israel: A National Minority Curriculum

    IMPACT-se has released a report on the Arab National Minority Curriculum in Israel, which includes Arab Muslim and Christian, Druze, Bedouin, and Circassian curricula. The report analyzes 108 textbooks across grades 1-12. Israel’s Arab Education program is a national minority curriculum in a conflict area. The Arabs of Israel are a large minority, but form part of the large Sunni Arab majority of the region. While textbooks contain contradictions, they nevertheless successfully educate for a social and economic integration of the Arab minority within the State of Israel, while fostering Arab and Palestinian cultures. Students learn important linguistic and cultural tools for success in Israel, the region and world. The curriculum’s perspective is from an Arab-Palestinian standpoint—Arab culture, history, tradition, connection to the land, and resentment and struggle with Israel. Yet there is evidence throughout that students benefit from a prosperous, peaceful and happy integration with their Jewish neighbors, so much so, that in some civic textbooks, Israel is presented as the homeland.  Report

  • Iran’s Radical Education: An Interim Update Report, 2021-22

    IMPACT-se’s updated Iran report analyzed new sets of textbooks in the Iranian curriculum created for the current 2021-2022 academic year. The findings indicate a greater degree of radicalization than in previous IMPACT-se reports, “Iran’s Global War Curriculum” (2006-2007) and “Iranian Education: The Continuous Revolution” (2016). Findings show that the Islamic Republic’s curriculum provides educational content that continues to teach students about the prospect of a global struggle to spread the Islamist-Khomeinist revolution from as early as the first grade. The world is divided between followers of Iran’s global revolution and those who oppose it. Students are taught that Arab proxy militias are part of the Iranian regime and core to its goals. A central tenet of the curriculum is aimed at equipping the military forces of the country. Maintaining Khomeinist ideology is the foundation for war and martyrdom in the name of spreading Islam. Students are taught that they are constantly under threat, most notably from the United States. The curriculum attacks the United States and praises the slogan “Death to America!” Death to America hate rituals are praised and justified as an important tool for preserving the unity of society and a necessity against American arrogant disposition. As is the case with prior reports, antisemitism remains rife, classic antisemitic tropes are used to describe Zionism, as a wealthy ring of evil Jewish capitalists looking to control the world for malicious gain and students are encouraged to attend protests calling for the “death to Israel.”  Report

  • Review of Changes and Remaining Problematic Content in 2021–2022 Qatari Textbooks

    IMPACT-se’s latest review of the Qatari curriculum evaluates changes made in fall and spring semester textbooks for 2021-22. IMPACT-se’s August 2020 report analyzing the Qatari curriculum found problematic content, namely hate toward Jews and extremist messaging. Over the last two years, Qatar’s textbooks have slowly improved with adjustments made toward moderation, including lessons on tolerance and racial discrimination. Significant progress was observed in removing antisemitic and anti-Christian content as well as examples of violent jihad. While the curriculum still disproportionately focuses on Israel, the hostile tone is lessened. Other problematic content remains, including antisemitic material, violent interpretations of jihad, hateful material against infidels and polytheists, demonization of Israel, and rejection of Arab-Israeli normalization.   2022 Review

  • Review of Changes and Remaining Problematic Content in Saudi Textbooks 2021–22


    IMPACT-se has released its 2022 annual update on Saudi textbooks, depicting an overall trend of improvement following major reforms since 2020. Whereas only a decade ago, focus was put on encouraging students to prepare for jihad and martyrdom, the majority of references to violent jihad justifying and praising violence and murder on behalf of the Prophet Muhammad have now been removed from the textbooks. And while some problematic content such as negative depictions of Jews, Zionism and Christians remain or have even been made worse, others, particularly instances of the kind of antisemitism based on modern European tropes, have largely been removed.   2022 Review

  • Palestinian Authority Ministry of Education Study Cards 2021–22, Grades 1–11—Selected Examples

    PA 2021-22 Textbook CoverThis IMPACT-se report analyzed textbooks and new “study cards” produced by the Palestinian Authority (PA) for the 2021–22 school year, which are used in the curricula of the West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem, and UNRWA schools, and includes selected examples from several hundred pages of educational content. Contrary to the assurances made by the PA to its international partners that improvements would be made rapidly to improve the 2020–21 curriculum, IMPACT-se found that there were no revisions to the PA curriculum for the current 2021–22 school year. In addition to the lack of PA-assured textbook revisions, research on the supplemental online learning materials, called study cards, found that the PA Ministry of Education published the same, and worse, content in violation of international standards of peace, tolerance, and non-violence in education. Selected Examples 

  • The Emirati Curriculum 2016-21, Grades 1-12—Selected Examples

    This IMPACT-se report provides a list of 134 selected examples from 220 textbooks in the United Arab Emirates’ national curriculum, between 2016–21. The examples illustrate the findings of our latest research report, “When Peace Goes to School: The Emirati Curriculum 2016-2021,” presenting lessons on peace, tolerance, and cooperation with the world and non-nationals, which are taught to be closely associated with prosperity and national identity. The language and moral education programs especially encourage cultural diversity, curiosity, and happiness. Additionally, the Abraham Accords are taught, and anti-Israeli material has been moderated. The research did not find antisemitism or incitement to violence, and UNESCO guidelines for peace and tolerance are generally met.  Selected Examples

  • WHEN PEACE GOES TO SCHOOL: The Emirati Curriculum 2016–21

    Image: UAE skyline

    This IMPACT-se report evaluates the UAE’s national curriculum for the 2021–22 academic school year. Among the findings: The curriculum teaches that prosperity and national pride are closely associated with peace and tolerance and encourages cooperation with the world and non-nationals. There is a realistic approach to peace and security; textbooks teach patriotism, anti-radicalism, commitment to defending the homeland and cooperating with allies, with a priority on peacemaking. Language and moral education programs encourage cultural diversity, curiosity and happiness. Students prepare for a highly competitive world and are taught positive thinking and well-being. The Abraham Accords are taught and anti-Israeli material has been moderated. The research did not find antisemitism or incitement to violence and UNESCO guidelines for peace and tolerance are generally met.   Report  Exec Sum (Report:Print  Exec Sum:Print)

  • Review of Changes and Remaining Problematic Content in Qatari Textbooks 2021-22 Fall Editions Grades 1–12

    Qatar-3 Textbooks_picThis new IMPACT-se report evaluates changes made in the Qatari fall semester textbooks for 2021–22. The report found that the Qatar curriculum continues a trend of slow improvement since our reports in August 2020 and June 2021, by removing additional disturbing and unacceptable passages previously criticized in IMPACT-se’s reports. However, passages that demonize Jews, praise martyrdom, and blame holy faiths for corrupting holy texts remain. Although some changes are suggestive of positive movement, a great deal of improvement is necessary to align the curriculum with international standards of Peace and Tolerance.  Report

  • A FURTHER STEP FORWARD: Review of Changes and Remaining Problematic Content in Saudi Textbooks 2021–22

    This latest IMPACT-se report on the Saudi Curriculum shows further dramatic improvements to Saudi Arabia’s schoolSaudi Textbooks Show Dramatic Improvements textbooks, continuing the significant changes seen in mid-2020 and documented in IMPACT-se’s last Saudi textbook report. Over the last year, textbooks have been moderated in several key areas. The greatest changes have been made to lessons dealing with Jews, Christians, non-believers, and violent jihad; twenty-eight lessons featuring demonization of the Other and religious intolerance were removed or heavily modified. While problematic material remains in Saudi textbooks, these represent profound changes in these categories. Sept 2021 Report

  • Understanding Qatari Ambition: The Curriculum 2016—20 (Updated)

    This IMPACT-se report continues to focus on Qatar’s school curriculum for grades 1–12. It has been updated in conjunction with the London-based think tank, Henry Jackson Society and a foreword by Dr. David Roberts of King’s College London. TImage: Front page of report, reading he study assesses over 314 textbooks, building upon previous IMPACT-se research within the prism of UNESCO standards and other UN and international declarations, recommendations and documents relating to education for peace and tolerance. Our review determined that the Qatari curriculum does not yet meet those international standards. As highlighted in the foreword, the curriculum reflects in many ways, the same overall tension facing Qatar’s leadership—between Qatar’s Islamist affinities and its desire to be seen as an open, neutral and progressive leader in the Arabian Gulf. Textbooks teach Qatari children to accept others different than themselves and advocate for peace—at the same time echoing antisemitic canards and reinforcing the Qatari regime’s support for Islamist terror organizations. While the curriculum emphasizes nationalist identities over tribal affiliations, it is also influenced by pan-Islamic and pan-Arab nationalism as well as elements of Salafism and the Muslim Brotherhood. Despite a slight movement away from radical jihadism, much remains. Nevertheless, Qatar’s curriculum remains heavily influenced by Western educators—displaying the Qatari gift for embracing contradictions.  2021 Report

  • The 2020–21 Palestinian School Curriculum Grades 1–12—Selected Examples

    This updated May 2021 IMPACT-se study analyzed textbooks used for the 2020-21 Palestinian curriculum (West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem and UNRWA) and includes selected examples from the research of 222 textbooks. Of those, 105 textbooks have not changed at all and remain as they were in 2019. Essentially, there were that no substantive positive changes made to the current Palestinian curriculum. Textbooks remain openly antisemitic and continue to encourage violence, jihad and martyrdom while peace is still not taught as preferable or even possible. Based on IMPACT-se’s UNESCO-derived standards of peace and tolerance, our findings show that the new PA curriculum does not meet these international standards and in some cases have even added more problematic content, compared to the previous curriculum.   Selected Examples   Changes

  • Review of Houthi Educational Materials in Yemen_2015-19

    The Ansar Allah Houthis, have penetrated the mainstream Yemeni education system as part ofHouthi Mag. Covers a campaign to spread their influence over the region. This exclusive IMPACT-se report reviews materials produced by the Houthis for use in its network of summer camps and extra-curricular classes as well as take-home materials including a monthly children’s “educational” magazine called Jihad. As an Iranian proxy, the Houthi materials mimic much of the Khomeinist rhetoric of that regime and represent some of the more egregious violations of UNESCO standards of peace and tolerance among current Middle Eastern education. The report offers a worrying insight into the violent Houthi mindset and extreme example of how education can be weaponized to perpetuate conflict. Report

  • The Erdogan Revolution in the Turkish Curriculum Textbooks

    Image: President of Turkey, Erdoğan, speaking

    Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has made significant changes to Turkey’s state-approved school textbooks since taking power in 2003. This report is the fourth undertaken by IMPACT-se into the Turkish curriculum. We have identified a marked deterioration in Turkish textbooks since our last review in 2016, in regards to meeting UNESCO defined standards of peace and tolerance. On the contrary, textbooks have been weaponized in Erdogan’s efforts to Islamize Turkish society and to hark back to a nostalgic age of Turkish domination. The Islamization of the curriculum is a direct attempt to shape future generations to fit in with his grand narrative of an Islamic/pan-Turkish revival.                                                                                          March 2021 Report   Exec Summary

  • Review of UNRWA-Produced Study Materials in the Palestinian Territories

    IMPACT-se’s extensive research of PA school textbooks has consistently shown a systematic insertion of violence, martyrdom and jihad across all grades and subjects, with the proliferation of extreme nationalism and Islamist ideologies throughout the curriculum. Yet, it is this material that is taught in UNRWA-run schools throughout the Palestinian Territories of the Gaza Strip and West Bank as well as Jerusalem. Our research shows that UNRWA, as a UN organization, knowingly produces and teaches material in its Gaza Strip and West Bank schools that are rife with problematic content that contradicts stated UN values. Although UNRWA has claimed in the past that it has devised a methodology to isolate and address problematic content it has not demonstrated how the issue is addressed. UNRWA’s lack of transparency to address such problematic issues make it impossible to evaluate the effectiveness of any efforts it claims to have made. Updated Research of post-November material shows hate remains.                                            January 2021 (Original) Report

  • Review of Saudi Textbooks 2020--21

    This follow-up report of Saudi 2020–21 textbooks by IMPACT-se shows that while many problematic examples have been removed from the curriculum, some still remain. The removal of the problematic content however, should certainly be seen as a significant improvement and an encouraging development, representing a step toward moderation. Our sense is that the Saudi kingdom, along with some other countries in the region, is gradually moving in a direction that could bring it in line with UNESCO-derived standards of peace and tolerance—contingent on whether the remaining issues are addressed. Report


    UAE Moral EducationThis preliminary IMPACT-se report focuses on the United Arab Emirates’ “Moral Education” curriculum, taught in all Emirates public and private schools, from grades 1-12. The research looked at the textbooks and teacher guides that make up the “Character and Morality” section of the UAE curriculum, measured against IMPACT-se’s UNESCO-derived standards of peace and tolerance. While the current research covers only this limited spectrum of the UAE curriculum, it is noteworthy that the content goes a long way to incorporate the values of peace and tolerance into a traditional education system. As such, this stand-alone course is unique in the region and may reflect UAE’s emerging leadership in the reform of textbooks. Preliminary Report

  • Understanding Qatari Ambition---The Curriculum 2016--20

    Image: IMPACT-se report entitled IMPACT-se’s interim review of 238 textbooks of the Qatari curriculum for the calendar years 2016-20, used international standards based on UNESCO and UN declarations and other recommendations and documents on education for peace and tolerance. The curriculum appears to be in in a change-mode, moving in a direction from jihadi radicalism toward open engagement with the world. While somewhat less radical than previous versions, the process of moderation is in its infancy. Some particularly offensive material has been removed after decades of radical propaganda in Qatari schools, but while heavily influenced by Western educators, serious issues remain regarding peace and tolerance.   Interim Report   Exec Sum   Centrality of Antisemitism in the Qatari Curriculum   Problematic Content in the Qatari Curriculum_Selected Examples

  • The Winding Road to a New Identity: Saudi Arabian Curriculum 2016-19

    This interim report on Saudi Arabia’s national curriculum covers 2016–19 textbooks, analyzed by IMPACT-se’s UNESCO-derived standards of peace and tolerance. The Saudi curriculum, at this stage, should be viewed as a reflection of the efforts being made to transform an exclusively  traditionalist Islamic society into one that incorporates more Western economic values and its pre-Islamic heritage. However, while the curriculum tries to evolve with such inherent contradictory elements, the radical orthodoxy of the Wahhabis remains dominant. The narrowing of the gap between the kingdom’s modernization goals and their practical application—both within the curriculum and throughout Saudi society—is in the beginning stages of a work in progress. Interim Report Executive Summary

  • PALESTINIAN CURRICULUM PUT TO THE TEST The General Certificate of High School Examination in Palestine (Tawjihi)

    This report studies the twenty-six tests comprising the Palestinian 2019 Tajihi MatriculationA Tajihi Exam Exam which tests grade 12 material from the Palestinian curriculum. The exam was analyzed according to IMPACT-se’s UNESCO-derived standards to research peace and tolerance in school education and compared it with the relevant textbooks and content from the PA curriculum that students needed to memorize for the exam. IMPACT-se’s finding is that many of the final exams are so designed that students must study problematic content that does not meet international standards for peace and tolerance.   Report  Exec Summary

  • Peace and Conflict in Israel State-Approved Textbooks: 2000--2018

    The article describes the peace and conflict educational approaches found in the Jewish-Israeli curricula between the years 2000–2017, and extracts the dominant themes and messages towards Muslim, Arab and Palestinian “others.” The study follows 123 textbooks recommended by the Israeli Ministry of Education for grades 7–12 of the Jewish state and state-religious sectors for the 2000–19 academic years. The academic subjects or disciplines represented in the  study include history, geography, civics (Jewish) religious studies, and Hebrew language and literature studies. Study findings indicate that current Israeli textbooks do not contain any overt racism or incitement against Palestinians. However, ethnocentric perceptions and victim mentality are two themes that still dominate curricular discourse and are counterproductive to peace education goals. Additionally, the paucity of Palestinian narratives is another potential hurdle to achieving peace education goals.  Complete Study

  • THE REJECTION OF PEACE: References to Peace Agreements, Israel, and Jews, Now Removed from PA Curriculum

    A report on selected positive content about peace, relations with Israel, and Jewish historical presence previously in the Palestinian school curriculum between 2000 and 2016, and subsequently removed from the restructured 2016–19 curriculum. Although some of the positive examples were removed even before 2016, the “new” PA curriculum represents a quantum leap backward toward radicalizing the textbooks–and unfortunately–Palestinian children.  Report

  • THE NEW PALESTINIAN CURRICULUM: BY THE NUMBERS--Quantitative Analysis of the Current Palestinian Ministry of Education Curriculum

    A quantitative analysis of textbooks from the current Palestinian Ministry of Education curriculum, applying UNESCO-derived standards of peace and tolerance. All 2019-20 textbooks for the first semester were analyzed. Additionally, in this report, we define Problematic Content as: violent connotations, incitement to violence, hatred of the Other, and radical, inappropriate or disturbing content. The accompanying graph from the report displays by grade, the number of violent references included in each textbook.   Report

  • Jordan’s New Curriculum: The Challenge of Radicalism

    Jordan’s new curriculum derives from the principles formulated in the Amman Message of 2004. In this report IMPACT-se evaluates a range of topics: moderating the education of Islam for students (with emphasis on diversity and openness); layers of national identity; the idea of good citizenship, which includes gender, economic and environmental responsibility; Jordan’s approach toward the West Bank and the Palestinians; unresolved internal conflict toward its peace with Israel and compassion toward the disadvantaged. Report   Exec Summary

  • Two Languages One Country: Turkey’s Elective Kurdish Curriculum

    The Kurdish textbooks appear at first glance to be simple and straightforward, no more than very little elective training in a minority population’s mother tongue. They are not. Both implicitly and explicitly the books include much material that strengthens conscious Kurdish identity . . . a conversation about this curriculum is worthwhile because the question of Kurdish education in Turkey remains unanswered. Report   Executive Summary

  • Wasatia Education: Exploring the Palestinian Curriculum

    This booklet suggests Wasatia Education for the Palestinian educational system using the methodologies of both IMPACT-se and the WASATIA Academic Institute. It explores the Image: Palestinian children in classroompresent Palestinian school textbooks and identifies areas where the curriculum incites, demonizes and delegitimizes the Other while proposing concepts and values to allow for a future of coexistence, tolerance and prosperity. For peace to take place between Palestinians and Israelis, it is essential that the new generation is taught the values of moderation, reconciliation, mediation, conflict resolution, peace, empathy, tolerance, common ethical values, and democracy, and to instill in them the spirit of applying these values in their daily lives. Digital Format  Booklet Format

  • The New Palestinian Curriculum--2018-19 Update--Grades 1-12

    IMPACT-se’s latest research on the new Palestinian curriculum for the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem includes recently published textbooks for the 2018-19 school year. The curriculum presents a common radical voice accommodating the full spectrum of extreme nationalist and Islamist ideologies in both Gaza and the West Bank, including anti-Semitic motifs amid themes of continuous struggle, heroism and martyrdom.  Full Report   Findings and Analysis

  • SYRIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY: Reformulating School Textbooks during the Civil War

    Image: Syrian boys and girls sitting in a classroom raising their hands

    For seven consecutive years a brutal civil war has been raging in Syria. From a comparatively stable, secular and authoritarian Arab country, Syria has turned into one of the cruelest and most violent flashpoints on earth.This study of the Syrian curriculum examines the updated 2017–18 education contents in the areas controlled by the Assad regime while the civil war continues to rage. It offers a unique look at a people in the midst of a mortal crisis.   Full Report   Executive Summary

  • REFORM or RADICALIZATION: PA 2017 Curriculum -- A Preliminary Review

    Image: Palestinian girls in classroom raising their hands With the first full reform of the Palestinian curriculum since 2000, IMPACT-se, in its second of three reports, covers sixty-six textbooks from the new PA curriculum of 2017–18 for Grades 5–11. Further research will provide a full assessment of the new curriculum covering Grades 1–12. The crux of this report is education for war and against peace with Israel, demonstrating that the curriculum has further distanced itself from our UNESCO-derived standards of peace and tolerance. Selected Examples (Updated)


    Haredi Family
    IMPACT-se researches 93 textbooks used in the Haredi curricula to promote a unique and separate cultural identity,  keeping  contact with mainstream Israeli culture to a minimum. While it fails to meet all of the UNESCO standards, Haredi education as a whole offers some unique characteristics and advantages that are worthwhile examining.


    This IMPACT-se report examines the 2016–17 Palestinian Authority school Children of the Revolutioncurriculum, focusing on elementary school grades 1-4. There is a comparison with upper grade student learning. The results point to instruction that is significantly more radical than previous curricula. To a greater extent than the 2014–15 textbooks, the curriculum teaches students to be expendable martyrs, rejects negotiations, demonizes and denies the existence of Israel and focuses on a “return” to an exclusively Palestinian homeland.


    Image: front cover of IMPACT-se report, entitled In July 2015, protesters throughout Turkey burned China’s flag, along with effigies of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong. On the same day, a group of Turkish Ultra-nationalists and Islamists gathered in central Istanbul to protest the alleged restrictions on Uyghur religious freedom in China.


    Image: Map of Turkey made into the shape of Turkey

    This well-timed report monitors Turkish school textbooks published since the AKP’s (Justice and Development Party)  rise to power from 2002–15, with special emphasis on recent years (2013–15). The report examined 117 school textbooks covering subjects in the humanities, science, religious instruction and civics.


    This timely report updates Impact’s  analysis of theImage: IMPACT-se report entitled: Palestinians in Israeli Textbooks: 2016 Update current Israeli educational curriculum, particularly as it relates to the Palestinian people and the Palestinian educational process. It is based on the review of 123 state and state-religious textbooks, which were approved and recom- mended by the Israeli Ministry of Education through the 2017 school year.

  • Iranian Education: The Continuous Revolution

    Image: Women wearing the Burqa in IranBetween 2012-16 IMPACT-se revisited Iranian school textbooks,  and prepared this latest report reflecting new developments in Iranian education. The Iranian education curriculum includes a long list of  troubling, sometimes paradoxical features, offering insight into a nation preparing its population — starting with its children — for an imminent apocalyptic battle with the world’s “oppressors.”

  • Between Sharia and Democracy: Islamic Education in North America

    North AmericaThe report surveys Islamic Studies curricula studied in The United States and Canada. Four out of the five curricula are published in the United States; one is published in Saudi Arabia for teaching in North America. Other than the latter curriculum, our main conclusion overall is that Muslim education in North America includes many positive elements, is flexible and generally tolerant. They contain a clear “us versus them” paradigm that rejects materialism, secular or liberal Islam. The materials demonstrate a respect for Christians and Jews but show hostility to Israel and distort the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including instances of erasing Israel from maps.

  • Inculcating Islamist Ideals in Egypt

    Image: Dr. Ali GomaaDr. Yohanan Manor revisits the Egyptian curriculum of the Mubarak era and convincingly demonstrates how years of Islamist mass education (featuring jihad and anti-Christian teachings) thwarted a smooth transformation to democracy in Egypt.

  • Time-Tested Education for Peace: The Bible and the IMPACT-SE Methodology

    bible_jacob_esauEducation has an extremely long impact and religious education even more so. The influence of education lasts for generations. A new study conducted at IMPACT-se examines The Biblical Saga of Jacob and Esau as a case study of a long-lasting educational text. The study demonstrates that this particular Biblical text positively influenced the relations between two neighboring Middle Eastern peoples for a millennium.